Categories: How to treat infection |
Mild illness, a small chair disorder.
High fever, repeated vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain, headaches, and even the loss of consciousness and seizures.
Long undulating fever, enlarged liver and spleen, purulent lesions in various organs.
All the above may be salmonella.
So how to treat salmonella we will tell in this article.
Salmonella is found almost everywhere. The sources of infection can be animals and people, the sick and bacillicarriers. The bacteria not only persist for a long time in milk, meat, eggs, but are able to reproduce, in spite of freezing and drying they remain viable, but quickly die when heated.
What happens if the salmonella gets into the body?
Bacterium enters the stomach with contaminated food. The stomach is the first natural barrier to infection – salmonella are killed in the acidic environment.
If the barrier is overcomed, the bacteria enter into the small intestine. Part of salmonella is destroyed, secreting endotoxin – from this moment there are the first symptoms of the disease: chills, fever, joint and muscle pain, followed by vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
The remaining bacteria are captured by the epithelial cells of the intestine, and then by macrophages – cells, which absorb and destroy infectious agents and transmit their “markings” to other immune cells to produce antibodies. Salmonella not only survive there for a while, but are able to reproduce, and with macrophages they get into the blood and then to the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys and other organs, where they are fixed.
Under the action of bacteria the immune forces completely die or provoke the emergence of new inflammation – in this case, there is a rare form of typhoid or septic salmonellosis.
Forms of salmonellosis
1) Gastrointestinal form is the most frequent. The disease begins in a few hours, a maximum of 2 days after infection. There are:
- The high temperature.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Abdominal pain, rumbling, bloating.
- Stool is thin, watery, with mucus, because of the colon there may be blood and false urge to defecate.
- Headaches, weakness, sometimes severe damage to the nervous system, the delirium, convulsions and loss of consciousness.
- Palpitation, reduction in blood pressure.
2) Typhoid form is a rare variant. At first, the symptoms of gastroenteritis may appear, then after 1-2 days disappear, but intoxication, in contrast, is growing, and fever can last up to a month. There are increased liver and spleen. One third of the patients have pink spots on the abdomen and chest after a week. Sometimes there are cough and sore throat.
3) Septic form is even rarer. There are prolonged fever with chills and sweats and purulent lesions in various organs and tissues (pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, and so on).
How to diagnose salmonellosis?
In case of the gastrointestinal form, especially if the patient remembers eating suspect foods, it is possible to diagnose salmonella, but even the most experienced clinician can not provide a definitive diagnosis without bacteriological analysis of feces and vomit (in the form of sepsis – blood cultures).
Do you need to go to the hospital?
Typhoid, septicemic form, of course, should be treated in a hospital. In case of the gastrointestinal form the hospitalization is required only in severe dehydration. If there are stools and repeated vomiting 10 times a day or more, you need a dropper. In mild cases, it can be treated at home.
Do you need to use antibiotics for salmonellosis?
In case of the gastrointestinal form – no. On the contrary, according to statistics, antibiotic treatment even increases the toxicity and reduces the excretion of Salmonella.
How to treat salmonella?
As strange as it sounds, but in spite of diarrhea and vomiting, you need gastric lavage and enema.
Chelators speed up the elimination of toxins.
Indomethacin (it is taken on the first day, 50 mg tablet three times within 12 hours) and calcium gluconate – 5 grams once – they prevent inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
How to avoid dehydration?
Preference should be given to salt solutions.
Standard composition per liter of water:
20 grams of glucose (8 teaspoons)
1.5 g. of potassium chloride (sold in pharmacies or an alternative – compote of raisins or dried apricots)
2.5 g. ofsoda (half a teaspoon)
3.5 g. of salt (a teaspoon without top).
You should drink little but often, ideally – to make a few sips every 5-10 minutes. Preferably you need to drink 300-400 ml per hour within the first 4-6 hours, and then – about a cup after each bowel movement.
How to speed up healing and to restore intestinal flora?
You need a special diet after infection during the month. You need to exclude spices, meats, canned goods, fatty meats and fish, sweets, whole milk, raw vegetables and fruits, mushrooms.
It is quite possible to add herbal medicine. In the early days – oak bark, pomegranate peel, partitions of walnuts, cherry fruit, and then – anti-inflammatory: chamomile, plantain, calendula, strawberries, sage and mint.
How to avoid infection?
Knives and cutting boards for meat and other products must be different. After using it is desirable not just rinse them, but wash thoroughly and with boiling water.
Meat with “blood” could be the cause of infection. Meat or poultry, cooked for 1 hour, are safe.
Eggs should be cooked for at least 10 minutes, and if you plan a dish of raw eggs, they should be thoroughly washed with soap and water.
You can not drink unboiled a milk, which is not packaged in a sterile container. Food need to be refrigerated, and before use – always boil or fry. Of course, you should wash hands before eating.
Rules are simple and familiar since childhood, but one who is faced with intestinal infections, which include salmonella, understands how important it is to follow them.