Hematoma is an accumulation of blood in the tissues due to bleeding, there is a cavity filled with blood. Hematomas can be caused by diseased vessels, for exaple, during atherosclerosis. Hematoma may form under the skin, periosteum, muscle, mucous membranes and internal organs, etc. Small superficial hematoma, caused by soft tissue injury, is a painful swelling with bruising. Its appearance often can be prevented by the proper first aid. At such treating these hematomas usually disappear without a trace. In the case of large hematomas, such as intramuscular, the patient needs medical supervision and treatment.
Causes of hematoma
Hematomas occur when blood vessels rupture, after tissue injury or when there is bleeding, or by other damage, preventing the blood outlet.
Symptoms of hematoma
There is swelling, which a relatively fast increases in size. Swelling fluctuates and at first there is no signs of inflammation. Later (in the 3-5th day) there is reactive inflammation in the tissues, along the periphery of the hematoma there is swelling of the tissue, there is a slight soreness and high temperature. In case of the penetration of microbes in the hematoma swelling gets hot and sharply painful, overall body temperature increases.
Classification of hematomas
Depending on the location (subserous, subdural, intramuscular, etc.), relation to the lumen of the blood vessel (throbbing, non-pulsed), the condition of streamed blood (clotted, infected, festering).
The main symptoms of hematoma, located in the subcutaneous tissue and muscle, are: pain, swelling of the limited availability, a dysfunction of the relevant muscles, skin color change from purple-red to yellow-green, often increasing of temperature. In case of a hematoma of the internal organs there are symptoms of compression of the organs.
Hematoma: in the beginning the site of injury is blue/glaucous, and closer to convalescence it begins to “bloom” – it is yellow, green and pink shades.
Around the brain: traumatic intracerebral hematoma. There is no clear definition of “traumatic intracerebral hematoma” due to the ongoing evolution of views on the pathogenesis of the process (synonyms – traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic contusion of the brain). Usually the diagnosis is made on the basis of computed tomography of the brain, revealing a focus of increased density in the brain parenchyma in patients with traumatic brain injury (many authors do not include in this concept hematomas less than 1 cm in maximum dimension).
Acute traumatic subdural hematoma is a collection of blood in the space between the inner layer of the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane of the brain.
Epidural hematoma is a local accumulation of blood in the space between the inner surface of the skull and the outer layer of the dura mater (epidural space).
How to treat a hematoma
In case of injuries to vital organs (brain, liver, etc.), you must immediately seek medical attention because, in addition to other damage, it can cause very dangerous to life hematomas. Conservative treatment of small hematomas: immediately after injury put cold and compression band (to prevent the development of hematoma) and analgesics (to reduce the unpleasant pain), and a few days after the injury – physical therapy (to accelerate resorption). Later in case of small hematomas you need heat and massage (not earlier than 5-6 days), in case of large hematomas they make emptying punctures (needle, trocar) or open the hematoma and treated as an open wound. Festering hematoma is necessarily opened.
In case of large hematoma the evacuation of blood is made by a puncture and then a pressure bandage is applied. In the event of renewed bleeding they make autopsy, perstriction or angiorrhaphy. In case of festering hematomas they open it and make drainage. Uncomplicated hematomas are usually treated easily.
Around the brain: traumatic intracerebral hematoma. Treatment in most cases is conservative: there are support of vital functions, correction of intracranial pressure in order to keep it below 25 mm Hg (ventricular drainage, barbiturates, hyperventilation). In case of dislocation and herniation (or obvious threat to their development) you need surgery.
Acute traumatic subdural hematoma. In most cases of acute subdural hematoma you need emergency surgery – craniotomy, the removal of the hematoma. An absolute indication for surgery is hematoma thicker than 1 cm by computed tomography. In the postoperative period you need intensive therapy with the support of vital functions and control the level of intracranial pressure (must be at least 25 mm. Hg) and ventricular drainage, barbiturates, hyperventilation.
Epidural hematoma. In most cases, emergency surgery is needed.
Recipes and methods of folk medicine for hematomas
Recipe 1: An excellent tool is a linen patch: take a clean linen cloth and pound it into powder or dust, then mix the powder with vegetable oil in a ratio of 1:4 and it can be used.
Recipe 2: Rub in the sore spot the fat of viper.
Recipe 3:Drink a decoction of flowers of arnica or rub the affected area with camphor alcohol.
Recipe 4: 2 times a day to do a hot tub for the damaged area with the concentrated solution of Epsom salts at the rate of 300-400 g of salt in a bucket of water. Duration of bath is 40-60 minutes.
Recipe 5: Rub the affected area 2 times a day with alcohol tincture of rosemary flowers or make a broth: take 1 cup of water and 10 g of the herb, simmer on low heat for 15 minutes. and strain.
Recipe 6: 1-2 times a day apply to the affected area fresh cabbage leaves.
Recipe 7: 1-2 times a day put a paste of cooked and mashed beans.
Recipe 8: put the potato slices to the sore spot or cook 0,5 kg of mature white beans, mash thoroughly and apply to the affected area. Cover with a cloth bandage and leave for the night – the pain will pass. Recipe 9: Apply aloe with honey.
Recipe 10: Drink water extract of the ash of the vine.